Database management is a system for managing the data that a company needs to run its business operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to users and application programs and then modifying it if necessary and monitoring the changes in the data and preventing the data from becoming damaged by unexpected failure. It is part of the informational infrastructure of a business that assists in decision making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were developed in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed for the storage and retrieve large amounts of data for a wide range of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complex human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a set of tables that arrange data according to some arrangement, like one-to-many relationships. It uses primary key to identify records, and also allows cross-references between tables. Each table has a collection of attributes or fields that provide information about data entities. The most widely used type of database that is currently in use is a relational model developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also simpler to update data since it does not require the changing of many sections of the databases.

Most DBMSs can support multiple types of databases and offer different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level focuses on cost, scalability and other operational issues, such as the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the way the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It can include a mixture of different external views based on different data models. It could include virtual tables that are calculated using generic data to improve the performance.

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